In this tense the third form of the verb past participle (V3) is used.
Auxiliary verbs used in this tense: Have & has
The formula for present perfect (Positive) is Subject +Auxiliary Verb + V3 (Past Participle Form).
For “write” past participle is “written”.
|I have written.||I have not written.||Have I written?|
|We have written.||We have not written.||Have we written?|
|You have written.||You have not written.||Have you written?|
|He has written.||He has not written.||Has he written?|
|She has written.||She has not written.||Has she written?|
|It has written.||It has not written.||Has it written?|
|They have written.||They have not written.||Have they written?|
This Tense is used to express an action which is over just now or completed recently. But time of the action not stated. A past and completed action and time not stated.
- We have seen the movie.
- He has left the place.
Action starting in the past and continuing till now.
- They have seen 7 movies so far, this year.
- My car has covered fifteen thousand kilometers till now.
Action that has taken place just now, using the just/ just now etc.
- They have come back from the college just now.
- She has just finished her meals.
Present perfect tense can also be used in interrogative sentences using “Already” and “Yet”.
- Hasn’t he finished yet?
- Why have you gone already?
“yet” is used in negative sentences to mean that something is expected to happen.
- They haven’t finished it yet.
Note: present perfect tense should not be used to express time of action.