English Grammar -Introduction of Tenses and Simple Present Tense

English grammar has classified human beings, animals, places and things into 7 categories.

They are: I, We, You, He, She, It and They.

‘I’ is called First Person Singular.
‘We’ is called First Person Plural.
‘You’ is called Second Person Singular & Plural.
‘He’ is called Third Person Singular.
‘She’ is called Third Person Singular.
‘It’ is called Third Person Singular.
‘They’ is called Third Person Plural.

Tenses

There are three tenses in English language. They are:

  1. Present tense.
  2. Past tense.
  3. Future tense.

And, each tense has four forms. They are:

(i) Present tenses

  1. Simple present tense.
  2. Present continuous tense.
  3. Present perfect tense.
  4. Present perfect continuous tense.
(ii) Past tenses
  1. Simple past tense.
  2. Past continuous tense.
  3. Past perfect tense.
  4. Past perfect continuous tense.

(iii) Future tenses

  1. Simple future tense.
  2. Future continuous tense.
  3. Future perfect tense.
  4. Future perfect continuous tense.

We need to know and understand about each tense how to write and where to use.

* Before we start learning tenses, it’s important to know about verb forms.

Verb Forms: There are mainly five forms for a main verb.

Forms Formula Example
1.   Base form V1 Go
2.   Past form V2 Went
3.   Past participle form V3 Gone
4.   Present participle or ‘ing’ form V4 Going
5.   ‘s’ form Goes

 

Taking the verb write we can make sentences in the following manner:

(i)Present Tenses

1. Simple Present:

The formula for simple present (Positive) is Subject + V1

Positive Negative Interrogative
I write. I do not write. Do I write?
We write. We do not write. Do we write?
You write. You do not write. Do you write?
He writes. He does not write. Does he write?
She writes. She does not write. Does she write?
It writes. It does not write. Does it write?
They write. They do not write. Do they write?

Note: One should be careful in the use of third person singular in simple present tense.

If the verb ends in –ch, -ss, -sh,-o, -x or z, then es is added to make simple present third person singular.

Examples:

Teach Teaches
Kiss Kisses
Smash smashes
Go Goes
Relax Relaxes
Buzz Buzzes

If the verb ends in rry, and y preceded by a consonant, then _ies is added.

Examples:

Carry carries,
Try Tries.

We use the Simple present tense:

  1. For regular or repeated actions in the present time period.
  • We take the bus to the office.
  • Stephen reads two hours every night during the week.
  1. For facts.
  • The President of The USA lives in The White House.
  • They hail from Canada.
  1. For habits.
  • We get up early every  day.
  • He does his homework daily in the evening.
  1. For things that are generally true.
  • It rains a lot in winter in London.
  • They speak English at school.
  1. For Universal truths.
  • Sun rises in the east.
  • Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
  1. For Proverbs and Sayings.
  • Man proposes,God disposes.
  • All things are difficult before they become
  1.  For Commands and Requests.
  • Close the door.
  • Kindly allow me to talk.

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